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This   topic of Public Speaking has been  covered under seven heads.


Platform Presence and Audience.

Give proper attention to your appearance  (what you wear ,how you dress etc.),pay attention to the expressions and movement of the audience, display   affection and warmth, have  a positive attitude  with respect to the things to be accomplished.


Audience Likes and Dislikes

Studies have brought out the following results:

Audience like simple language, plain and direct expression, short  sentences…Expect that the Speaker should     know  the subject well, be time-conscious and easy to follow.

(deal one point at a time ,delivery  should be reasonably slow, deliberate  and provided with proper pauses).Speaker should be sincere, enthusiastic…display  feelings, emotion

and enthusiasm.


Audience dislikes: Too long in getting started, too many points, too low or too loud voice, uninteresting  speech  opening , trying to be funny, a  monotone ,poor enunciation..


This involves. .assembling ( thoughts, information ,facts), arranging and assimilating.

Borden`s formula  :

Ho Hum! (introducing a subject so as to attract attention).

Why bring that up? ( explaining .origin,reasons,effects,implications..)

For instance.  (  giving examples, illustrations to make the subject easy to understand)

So what?  ( what action needs to be taken…by the audience/authorities/population )

Appealing to the personal interest of the audience  helps in getting attention,involvent

and participation.


      Effective ways of opening a speech: : by a question/quotation /story/startling statement/ an exhibit… taking advantage of local circumstances…by a conversational statement of facts.


      Effective ways of closing a speech: by a summary/quotation/peroration (bringing thoughts ,language, voice  and emotion to a climax)


      No speech need necessarily fall/  squarely fall under one classification.(Informative/Persuasive/Entertaining/Graceful)


Speech Delivery

Avoid strain on the audience…voice should be loud enough ..avoid  monotone…voice should be pleasant. Keep language simple ..sentences short and clear in meaning. Audience like enthusiasm…speak with feeling and conviction.


Use conversational tone.(select one or two persons somewhere towards the back in the audience and start speaking to one of them..Later look squarely at the audience and sweep it with the eyes as you speak.  Eyes are windows of the soul.Speaker can use the audience as the barometer of the of the effect of his words.)


Carry cards or notes  as an aid  while delivering your address.


It is desirable that speaker should address the  Chair at least once or twice during the course of the speech.

Microphone Technique and Broadcasting.

Radio station regulations demand that speech should be  written out  completely and  timed to fit it exactly with the time allotted to the talk .Use thick quality of paper to avoid rattling of paper. Make  the speech interesting by live illustrations,human interest stories

or word pictures. The beginning should be attention-compelling ,interesting  or curiosity arousing.

Read your speech several times to familarise yourself with the material and gain fluency., pay attention to sound effects, ‘S’ should not be used often to avoid ‘whistle’.

Strive at variation in speed, pitch and tone.


Preparing a Persuasive Speech

Broadly speaking the Borden`s formula is an effective one in preparing  a persuasive speech.


Tactful speaker uses techniques of  persuasion that do not give the impression to the audience that  it is being  driven to  any particular direction. Speaker opens and follows

it up by a number of suggestions of  a broadminded nature, which every section of the

audience might agree with.(This is ‘Yes,response’ technique.)…appeals to the personal interest …uses the technique of ‘grafting  the belief  to the one which already existed in the mind of the audience…..


Entertaining Speech

Think deeply on the subject before approaching joke-books or other sources of humour.


A well-read person  need not necessarily have the gift of Humour. Good observation of funny traits among people  around you, some unreasonable beliefs among different communities, activities and rules and regulations peculiar a  profession or a calling provide raw materials for preparing an Entertaining Speech.


(Source: Personal lessons in Public Speaking :Prof.C.Cowasji,B.A.)